Dave Rogers and his 1969 E33A Beech Bonanza.

## Technical Flyingby_. David F. Rogers ._

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 Math Notes for the Articles Performance Articles Angle of Attack Engine Upgrade Propeller Efficiency Flight Test Results Airspeed System Stability & Control Safety Articles Turnback After Engine Failure

Math notes for these papers
If you are one of those individuals that is math challenged, please read these very simple math notes.
You really do have the background to understand the arguments based on the math in these papers.
Try it! (35 pdf file)

Performance
 Gear and Flaps Is There A Step Altitude Effects Weight Effects Turbulent Penetration Speed Turbo-normalization Range for Piston Aircraft Turning Performance

Gear & Flaps: Part 1
Discusses the effects of extending the gear and/or flaps on power required, velocity for minimum power required (velocity for maximum endurance) and the velocity for maximum lift to drag ratio (best glide velocity) with specific application to a model E33A Bonanza. However, the concepts are applicable to any aircraft. (99k pdf file).

Gear & Flaps: Part 2
Discusses the effects of extending the gear and/or flaps on the velocity for maximum rate-of-climb and on the actual rate-of-climb with specific application to a model E33A Bonanza. However, the concepts are applicable to any aircraft. (94k pdf file).

Is There A Step?
A look at the old idea of getting `on the step'. (46k pdf file).

Altitude Effects: Part 1
Discusses the effects of altitude on power required to maintain steady level flight and on thrust power available. The effects of altitude on the miniumn power required and the velocity for minimum power required are also discussed. Results are given for a model E33A Bonanza. However, the concepts are applicable to any aircraft (84k pdf file).

Altitude Effects: Part 2
Discusses the effects of altitude on the rate of climb in clean and dirty configurations, i.e., with gear and/or flaps extended with specific application to a model E33A Bonanza. However, the concepts are applicable to any aircraft (71k pdf file).

Weight Effects, Part 1
Discusses the effects of weight on aircraft performance including the effect on the velocity for maximum glide range, cruise and maximum velocity and rate-of-climb (77k pdf file).

Weight Effects, Part2
Continues the discussion of the effects of weight on aircraft performance including the effect on the stall velocity (45k pdf file).

Turbulent Penetration Speed
What is the turbulent penetration speed? How is it determined? How does it vary with weight? (51k pdf file).

Turbo-normalization Performance
Discusses the performance increases that you can expect when using turbo-normalization including increased speed at altitude, increased rate-of-climb and decreased time-to-climb (54k pdf file).

Range for a Piston-propeller Powered Aircraft
Discusses range for piston-propeller powered aircraft from both a theoretical and practical viewpoint. (61k pdf file).

Wind Effects on Maximum Range
Discusses the effects of wind on maximum range. It shows that adding or subtracting one quarter of the wind velocity gives a better approximation to the velocity for maximum range than the typical rule-of-thumb of adding or subtracting half the wind velocity. (70k pdf file).

Efficiently Wasting Fuel
Discusses how to optimize your fuel usage by flying at the appropriate altitude and per cent power. (85k pdf file).

Fuel Efficiency of Small Aircraft
(B.H. (Bud) Carson's original 1980 AIAA paper (AIAA-80-1847) on which the Carson Cruise Speed is based is given here for those who wish additional background. (533k pdf file).

Parasite Drag
Discusses the results of wind tunnel tests of a Grimes beacon and the practical effects on aircraft performance of the parasite drag generated by the beacon. (116k pdf file)

Turning Performance
Discusses the fundamentals of turning performance for aircraft. Derives the equation for turn radius and shows the effect of velocity and bank angle on the radius. (70k pdf file).

Turning Performance - Sustained Level Turns
Discusses the effects of turning on the power required to maintain level flight. Determines the available range of true airspeeds for sustained level turns at various bank angles. (78k pdf file).

Two-Chart Performance - Part 1
Presents basic aircraft performance in a single chart at three different altitudes - sea level, 5000ft and 10,000ft. Includes discussions of the effect of aircraft configuration changes, e.g., gear down, gear down and flaps extended 20 and 32 degress, on aircraft performance. Effects on best glide, best rate of climb, best angle of climb are discussed. The effects of propeller efficiency and altitude on available level flight speed ranges are also discussed. The results are specific to IO-520, IO-470N and IO-470J powered straight tail and V-tail Bonanzas with emphasis on an E33A but are also, in principal, applicable to other similar aircraft. (285k pdf file).
Two-Chart Performance - Part 2
Presents aircraft turning performance in a series of charts at three different altitudes - sea level, 5000ft and 10,000ft for bank angles of 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees. Includes discussions of the effects of turning on aircraft configuration e.g., gear down, gear down and flaps extended 20 and 32 degress, on aircraft performance. Effects of turning flight on best glide, best rate of climb, best angle of climb are discussed. The effects of turning flight on propeller efficiency and altitude on available level flight speed ranges are also discussed. The results are specific to IO-520 powered straight tail and V-tail Bonanzas with emphasis on an E33A but are also, in principal, applicable to other similar aircraft. (285k pdf file).
2018 EAA Two-Chart Performance Lecture Slide Set
The 2018 EAA Lecture Slides
The two articles immediately above should also be read as they contain the discussion.
The lecture presented aircraft performance in a series of charts at three different altitudes - sea level, 5000ft and 10,000ft and for bank angles of 0, 15, 30, and 45 degrees.
The lecture illustrated the effects of increasing parasite drag, e.g., gear down, gear down and flaps extended 20 and 32 degrees, on aircraft performance. For example: The effects on best glide, best rate of climb, best angle of climb, propeller efficiency, as well as altitude and turning flight on available positive rate of climb level flight speed ranges were presented. The results are specific to IO-520 powered straight tail and V-tail Bonanzas with emphasis on an E33A but are also, in principal, applicable to other similar aircraft. (13,841k pdf file It is going to take a while to download. Be patient).

Angle of Attack Articles
Recommend reading the articles in the order presented.

Absolute Angle of Attack
Dicusses the difference between geometric angle of attack familar to pilots and absolute angle of attack. Illustrates the effects of flap deflection on absolute angle of attack, zero lift angle of attack, lift coefficient, drag coefficient and pitching moment. (96k pdf file).

Fundamental Angle of Attack
Shows that the absolute angle of attack for maximum lift to drag ratio is a fundamental aircraft angle of attack that is independent of weight, density altitude and load factor and only depends upon aircraft design parameters. Shows how the conditions for maximum lift to drag ratio can be used to collapse the variations in weight, load factor, altitude, etc. to a single curve. (207k pdf file).

Angle of Attack and Speed
Shows that angle of attack controls airspeed because of the balance (trim) requirement. Discusses the interaction of power required/power available and stability in angle of attack. (75k pdf file).

Aerodynamics of a Base-to-final Stall-Spin
Discusses the aerodynamics of a base-to-final stall-spin on the angle of attack including the effects of yaw rate and roll rate. Discusses which wing to mount a secondary stall warning device on. (67k pdf file).

Wind Tunnel Test of Angle of Attack Probe
Discusses the results of wind tunnel tests of a differential pressure angle of attack probe in pitch, yaw and roll and the errors in displayed angle of attack that result. Presents a more accurate in flight calibration scheme. Presents a method of normalizing the differential pressure without using the aircraft pitot-static system. (268k pdf file).

Accurate Low Cost Angle of of Attack Data Acqusition System
Provides a complete discussion and analysis of an Accurate Low Cost (<\$100 for parts) Angle of Attack Data Acquisition System including underlying theory, hardware list, code and flight test results. (5.4 Mbyte pdf file).

Performanced Based Angle of Attack Display
Discusses a proposed performance based angle of attack display. Discusses a more accurate in flight calibration scheme. Presents a method of normalizing the differential pressure without using the aircraft pitot-static system. (127k pdf file).

Some Comments On Calibrating Angle of Attack Systems
Shows that the angles of attack for maximum lift to drag ratio, minimum power required and Carson cruise depend only of aircraft design parameters and aircraft configuration. Also shows that angle of attack calibration is independent of the equivalent airspeeds selected provided they are properly spaced. (51k pdf file).

Engine Upgrade Performance IO-520 to IO-550
Discusses the performance increases that you can expect when upgrading to an engine with increased horsepower (99k pdf file).

Engine Upgrade Performance IO-470 to 520 or IO-550
Discusses the performance increases that you can expect when upgrading to an engine with increased horsepower (126k pdf file).

Propeller Efficiency Articles

Cruise Propeller Efficiency
Discusses cruise propeller efficiency and develops the ASROT rule of thumb for setting propeller RPM to maximize propeller efficiency for both normally aspirated and turbonormalized aircraft. Shows how to calibrate the ASROT factor for a given propeller. (90k pdf file).

Takeoff Propeller Efficiency
Discusses takeoff propeller efficiency for both normally aspirated and turbonormalized aircraft. (90k pdf file).

Climb Propeller Efficiency
Discusses climb propeller efficiency for both normally aspirated and turbonormalized aircraft. (90k pdf file).

Full Throttle Constant Altitude Propeller Efficiency
Discusses full throttle constant altitude cruise propeller efficiency for normally aspirated aircraft. (115k pdf file).

Flight Test Articles

Horseshoe Heading Technique: Using GPS to Calibrate the Airspeed Indicator
Discusses the theory behind using GPS and the Horseshoe Heading Technique to calibrate the airspeed indicator. This one works. (58k pdf file).

Finding e & f from GPS flight test data.
Finding the induced and parasite drag factors, e & f, from GPS flight test data where the true airspeed is directly available.
An example is given for a high performance single engine retractable aircraft. (69k pdf file).

Tip Tank Comparative Flight Test
Comparative flight tests results for an E33A Bonanza with and without tip tanks.(64k pdf file).

Bonanza Stall Performance with Vortex Generators
A flight test report on stall characteristics with and without vortex generators. (101k pdf file).

Bonanza Cruise Performance with Vortex Generators
A flight test report on cruise performance with and without vortex generators. (74k pdf file).

Baron G-58 Level Flight Performance with and without Vortex Generators
A flight test report on level flight performance, cruise speed and rate of climb with and without vortex generators. (160k pdf file).

Flight Test of Atlantic Aero A-36
A level flight performance flight test of the Atlantic Aero A-36. Results show a 10 knot true airspeed increase at 6000 ft and 195 BHP (724k pdf file).

Balanced Fuel Injector Effects on In-Flight Engine Vibration
In flight measurement of aircraft vibration levels with and without balance flow fuel (GAMI) injectors were conducted.
(170k pdf file).

Gear & Flaps: Flight Tests
Discusses flight tests investigating the effects of extending the gear and/or partial flaps on the parasite drag of the aircraft. Presents original data and provides new insight into estimating the parasite drag from a minimal number of flight tests. The concepts are applicable to both flight test and wind tunnel data including classical NACA 2-dimensional wind tunnel data. The flight tests were conducted in a model E33A Bonanza. However, the concepts are applicable to any aircraft. (336k pdf file).

Airspeed System
The Airspeed Indicator
Discusses the theory behind the operation of the airspeed indicator (84k pdf file).

Calibrating The Airspeed Indicator
Discusses the theory behind why you cannot just fly reciprocal GPS tracks to calibrate the airspeed indicator. (83k pdf file).

Stability and Control
Forward CG limit.
How is the forward CG limit determined and what are the effects of exceeding it? (34k pdf file).

Speed Stability
Discusses level flight speed stability on both the front and back sides of the power required curve. (49k pdf file).

Trim stall caution.
Cautions against applying full up trim if the engine quits during cruise. (33k pdf file).

Elevator Balance
Why did Beech use magnesium for the elevator and rudder on the Bonanza? (107k pdf file)

Zero Elevator Angle
Marking the zero elevator angle has several uses. Also discusses why the horizontal stabilizer is set on the aircraft the way it is (56k pdf file)

Aircraft Balance
Discusses the difference between balance and stability as well as the question of whether tail lift is positive or negative. (61k pdf file)

Safety
Partial Aileron Control Blockage
A partial aileron control loss in a Beech Bonanza caused by a loose cable in the avionics bay occurred. Images show exactly how this can and did occur because of the unique yoke system in Bonanzas. Recommend that you periodically look closely at your avionics cabling and print this article to show to your avionics and maintenance shops.

Turnback After Engine Failure On Takeoff
Should You Turn Back?
Discusses the optimal maneuver for a turnback after engine failure during take-off.

The Feasibility of Turnback from a Low Altitude Engine Failure During the Takeoff Climb-out Phase by Brent Jett
The complete AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronutics) paper that discusses a simulator experiment addressing the turnback after engine failure at low altitude (500 feet) during take-off problem (329k pdf file).

This experimental work was done as a research project at the United States Naval Academy Aerospace Engineering Department during 1981 while Jett was a Midshipman 1/C. I was the Academic Advisor. Professor Bernard Carson contributed to the theoretical part of the research. (I reset the paper and made one or two minor corrections.)
Dave Rogers

The Possible `Impossible' Turn
This paper discusses the optimal maneuver for a turnback after engine failure during take-off. The paper is quite mathematical. However, any pilot can benefit from the discussion of the results and the graphs. (281k pdf file).
Based on an AIAA (American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronutics) Journal of Aircraft paper of the same title (Vol. 32, pp. 392-397, 1995).

The Penalties From Using Non-optimal Turnback Parameters
This article discusses the penalties from using non-optimal parameters for a turnback maneuver after engine failure during take-off. The article specifically shows the penalties that result from using the climbout speed, bank angle and speed in the turn recommendations in an article by Barry Schiff in the April 2011 issue of AOPA Pilot. (187k pdf file).

Analysis of the Video of an Actual Mooney 20C Turnback?
Discusses the video of an actual turnback maneuver executed in a Mooney 20C after engine failure at 450-500 ft AGL during take-off.

David F. Rogers , PhD, ATP
Professor of Aerospace Engineering (Emeritus).